Emissions and adaptation are strategic complements when damage is linear, while they can be either complements or replacements if the damage is not linear. Gupta, J., &Lebel, L. (2010). Access and allocation in the governance of the Earth system: a comparison of water and climate change. International Environmental Agreement, 10(4), 377-395. Bulkeley, H., Edwards, A. S. G., &Fuller, p. (2014). Combating Climate Justice in the City: A Study of Policy and Practice in Urban Experiences of Climate Change. Global environmental change,25, 31-40. doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.01.009.
Allen, M. R., Shine, K. P., Fuglestvedt, J. S., Millar, R. J., Cain, M., Frame, D. J., et al. (2018). A solution for misrepresentations of carbon equivalent emissions of short-lived climate pollutants, with ambitious mitigation measures. NPJ Climate and Atmospheric Science,1,1, 16 doi.org/10.1038/s41612-018-0026-8.
Aspects of the distribution of energy and climate policy. Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing. Next, we turn to nonlinear damage, where we focus on the widespread square damage specification (η = 2). It should be recalled that if the possibilities for adaptation are ignored, no more than two countries choose to join a stable agreement when signatories and non-signatories simultaneously choose issues (Finus, reference Finus2003). Taking into account the possibilities for adaptation, we have identified in Section 4 how emission incentives depend on the degree of adaptation of each country (equation 17) and the emission strategies of other countries (equation 20). Below we will discuss the impact of these relationships on the willingness to join a coalition. Figure 1 shows the incentives for an equilibrium level of total emissions for different adjustment costs with c and c ̄, which are given by equations (21) and (22) respectively. Figure 1. Strategic relationships between adaptation cost variables when damage is square Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (FAO).
(2010). Forest Management for Climate Change, Rome. Retrieved by www.fao.org/3/i1960e/i1960e00.pdf. Called July 15, 2019. . . .